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If you need to reset your password, click here. Having a problem logging in? Please visit this page to clear all LQ-related cookies. Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant.
They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own. Click Here to receive this Complete Guide absolutely free. Trying to get a fool-proof VPN kill-switch set up I'm probably the fool in question, of course.
I don't want to rely on a special program or app to take care of this, cuz what if the app fails? And they do, sometimes. I used these commands to set the rules in ufw: Code:. Originally Posted by Captain Brillo. I have an app, pulse-smson my phone that has a desktop version on this box. It allows texting from the PC, no matter where the phone is, as long as the phone is on. What I want to know is how do I get this app to call out on tun0 instead of eno1?
It's configured from the phone The app communicates via the cloud with the phone. But the real question, I guess, is how do apps know to use the VPN?
Browsers use it, automatically it seems, how do they know and why don't other apps? Thread Tools. BB code is On.Linux has supported many kinds of tunnels, but new users may be confused by their differences and unsure which one is best suited for a given use case. In this article, I will give a brief introduction for commonly used tunnel interfaces in the Linux kernel.
There is no code analysis, only a brief introduction to the interfaces and their usage on Linux. Anyone with a network background might be interested in this information. A list of tunnel interfaces, as well as help on specific tunnel configuration, can be obtained by issuing the iproute2 command ip link help. After reading this article, you will know what these interfaces are, the differences between them, when to use them, and how to create them.
The IPIP tunnel header looks like:. It has the lowest overhead but can only transmit IPv4 unicast traffic. That means you cannot send multicast via IPIP tunnel.
How to monitor network traffic on a Linux or Unix like OS
The same with following example configs. With your free Red Hat Developer program membership, unlock our library of cheat sheets and ebooks on next-generation application development. The main purpose is to interconnect isolated IPv6 networks, located in global IPv4 internet. Initially, it only had an IPv6 over IPv4 tunneling mode. After years of development, however, it acquired support for several different modes, such as ipip the same with IPIP tunnelip6ipmplsipand any. Mode any is used to accept both IP and IPv6 traffic, which may prove useful in some deployments.
When the sit module is loaded, the Linux kernel will create a default device, named sit0. The tunnel header looks like:. When the ip6tnl module is loaded, the Linux kernel will create a default device, named ip6tnl0.
This particular tunneling driver implements IP encapsulations, which can be used with xfrm to give the notion of a secure tunnel and then use kernel routing on top. You can also configure IPsec via libreswan or strongSwan.
The GRE header looks like:. When the gre module is loaded, the Linux kernel will create a default device, named gre0. Tunneling can happen at multiple levels in the networking stack. An example FOU header looks like:. An example GUE header looks like:. This setup could be used to analyze, diagnose, and detect malicious traffic. If you want to make the configuration persistent across reboots, please consider using a networking configuration daemon, such as NetworkManageror distribution-specific mechanisms.
Server Fault is a question and answer site for system and network administrators. It only takes a minute to sign up. Is the following routing table correct for that goal? This way all traffic including incomming from tun0 will be routed via tun1 except local traffic on ethernet Is this situation OK for you? In case the answer is yes then you can keep this setting.How to Find Your IP Address in Linux Terminal
This way you can set custom routing table where the default GW would be tun1 and only traffic comming from tun0 would be pointed to this custom routing table. This way you can isolate whole tun interfaces from eth0 with internal routing between namespaces so you can have simple default routing table set up in the namespace so only traffic from tun0 can reach tun1.
The computer picks up the packet and looks for how to send it. It sees that it should be sent via tun1 because the 2 routes below are the equivalent of a default route, but more limited, so preferred over the default route - in this case the first route is hit.
But here is the part which may not be obvious. If you look at the configuration for tun1, you will find it has an endpoint which is There is a specific route for this IP address which goes over tun0. As this is a very specific route, traffic to Thus all traffic flowing to the internet over tun1 must go through A traceroute won't show this because the packet does not know it is being tunnelled through a tunnel.
That said, you can still check that this is happening by looking at the lower levels - Generating traffic while in another window doing a "sudo tcpdump -n -i any".
How to Enable/Check TUN/TAP module in VPS(OpenVZ).
You will see that whenever a packet is sent to the wider internet, a packet will be sent through each of eth0, tun0, tun1, and the same will be true of returned packets. The packets associated with tun0 will all have the target of Sign up to join this community.
The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Asked 5 months ago. Active 5 months ago. Viewed times. That routing table looks OK, but what do you mean by "all" and why are you asking? I wonder if you are using openvpn and are missing some directives I am asking because I want to know if this routing table really shows a double-hop VPN connection. NetworkManager was used to create the first tun0.
It only takes a minute to sign up. If you run ifconfig -a or ip link show you should be seeing something like tunX below which is a tun device used by most route-based VPN:. Or if you are using IPsec e.
If strongSwan is running policy-based routing defaultyou'll be able to figure out by manipulating the kernel routing table or looking at ip-xfrm IP framework for transforming packets encrypting payloads. You can also check your routes with the route command. You will see more routes as normal and to different destinations. Therefore based on Terry Wang's answer and zipizap's commentif you do not know the device name, you may use:. I'm using fantastic argo gnome shell plugin, and above is part of my script so I can launch VPN from toolbar or shut it down.
Ubuntu Community Ask! Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Ask Question. Asked 7 years, 7 months ago. Active 6 months ago. Viewed 38k times. Does a command line command exist that lets me check to see if I'm logged in with Juniper? Martin Thoma Martin Thoma Active Oldest Votes. Terry Wang Terry Wang 7, 4 4 gold badges 30 30 silver badges 27 27 bronze badges.
Using the juniper ncdiag commands will give you this information. Use ncdiag -t for a tunnel test. Use ncdiag -h for host info. DmitrySemenov DmitrySemenov 2 2 bronze badges.
Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. The Overflow Checkboxland. Tales from documentation: Write for your dumbest user. Featured on Meta. Feedback post: New moderator reinstatement and appeal process revisions. The new moderator agreement is now live for moderators to accept across the…. How should we celebrate 10 years of Ask Ubuntu?The ip command has a lot to tell you about the configuration and state of your network connectionsbut what do all those words and numbers mean?
When you use the ip a or ip addr command to get information on all the network interfaces on your system, you're going to see something like this:.
The two interfaces on this system — the loopback lo and network enp0s25 — are displayed along with a lot of stats. The "lo" interface is clearly the loopback. We can see the loopback IPv4 address The normal network interface is more interesting. If you're wondering why it's called enp0s25 on this system instead of the likely more familiar eth0a little explanation is in order.
The interface name depends on the physical location of the hardware. The " en " simply means "ethernet" just like "eth" does for eth0. The " p " is the bus number of the ethernet card and the " s " is the slot number.
So "enp0s25" tells us a lot about the hardware we're working with. The other values listed also tell us a lot about the interface, but we need to know what words like "brd" and "qlen" represent. So, here's a translation of the rest of the ip a shown above.
You might have noticed that some of the information that the ifconfig command provides is not included in the ip a output — such as the stats on transmitted packets. If you want to see a list of the number of packets transmitted and received along with collisions, you can use this ip command:. The ip command is extremely versatile. You can get a helpful cheat sheet on the ip command and its options from Red Hat. Sandra Henry-Stocker has been administering Unix systems for more than 30 years.
It only takes a minute to sign up. I have already done some searching and more or less understand what a tun0 interface does.
27 nmcli command examples (cheatsheet), compare nm-settings with if-cfg file
I got the following from various sources. Now, if I compare outputs for eth0 and tun0I see something like this. Hardware network links can be either point to point or point to multipoint.
A point to point link has two addresses associated with it, specifically ip address the near address and the point to point peer address the far address. Since the point to point link will only work with the two addresses, the broadcast, and network addresses and the netmask do not have useful data or have flag values.
Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Uunderstanding tun0 addresses Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 2 months ago. Active 1 year, 10 months ago. Viewed 20k times. I have the following points I do not understand. What is the role of address P-t-P Why is the subnet mask of tun0 set to Rui F Ribeiro 47k 18 18 gold badges silver badges bronze badges.
Masroor Masroor 2 2 gold badges 3 3 silver badges 11 11 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. A final point tun interfaces can have mac addresses, they just don't have default mac addresses. Could you please show some example where a tun interface can have mac address? Thanks for your answer. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. The Overflow Checkboxland.
Tales from documentation: Write for your dumbest user. Featured on Meta. Feedback post: New moderator reinstatement and appeal process revisions. The new moderator agreement is now live for moderators to accept across the…. Hot Network Questions.Is your VPN protecting all of your online activity? Depending on how the software is configured, it may not be. Using a VPN in such situations can provide a false sense of security. You think the VPN is encrypting all of your traffic, but it actually only protects information exchanged with certain sites.
With a little work, however, you can force your Linux system to route all of your Internet traffic through the VPN connection. Here are the steps for configuring complete VPN routing on a Linux system.
These are tested on Ubuntu First of all, of course, you need to have you VPN set up and be logged into it. If not, here are a couple of ways to try to figure it out on your own:. You may need to reboot your computer after running this command, because it will have temporarily reconfigured your network connection in a way that prevents it from working. Run this command: sudo tcpdump -n -i tun0 then immediately browse to a site that you can only reach while logged in to your VPN, such as a company Web portal.
After the site loads, press Press control-C in the terminal to kill the command. A string of IP addresses and other information will have appeared in the terminal where you ran the command. Using informed trial and error, you should be able to figure out which one.
By the way, if you stop using the VPN, you will need to reverse the steps above in order to route traffic through your default gateway again. Refreshing your connection in Network Manager will probably also do this for you automatically. I am running linux in a virtualbox.
But, I still need to stop regular traffic if the vpn is down. In Virtualbox the default gateways are 0. How would I go about achieving this goal, in the virtualbox?
After following your tutorial, i am still not able to access local lan I would like to know what does the last line show?
How to Ensure All Your Traffic Goes through a VPN on Linux
Leave this field empty. Next, with the VPN up and running, follow these steps to route all traffic through it: 1. Delete the default gateway from your routing table with a command like this: sudo ip route del default via Now, all traffic will route through your VPN.
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